Narrative Identity Constructs and Effects on the Performance in Sport Field
Keywords:narrative identity, sport, performance, athletes, storytelling, self-awareness
The exposure to the numerous and challenging changes and pressures in the contemporary society (new technologies, socio-demographic processes, financial and economic crisis, organisational reshaping, societal values changes, etc.) significantly affects the way to live of individuals, who need to completely rethink and reshape their way to behave for being able to face all the new difficulties in their everyday life. Individuals face many difficulties, especially in terms to express themselves, keeping their own identity also with respect of their societal and cultural values. It is not easy to keep and express our own identity into contemporary society characterised by high pluralism and multiculturalism, where, especially the new generations need to feel accepted by the world and don’t often follow their real way to be and behave. In the sport setting the debate on this issue is still open with an increasing focus on the effects of narrative identity constructs on the athletes’ performance. This conceptual study with its explorative nature aims to investigate this issue of narrative identity as a possible effective way for individuals to face the numerous challenges in their everyday life, trying to keep their strong values and their real way to be and behave. The purpose is to analyze the identity issue though the narrative identity constructs with direct and indirect connection to the sport setting, mostly athletes’ performance. Specifically, our purpose is to investigate the relationship between these topics for athletes involved in sport competitions evidencing their way to tell about them.
Adisa, T.A., Gbadamosi, G., and Osabutey, E.L. (2017), “What Happened to the Border? The Role of Mobile Information Technology Devices on Employees’ Work-Life Balance”, Personnel Review, 46 (8): 1651–1671. DOI: 10.1108/PR-08-2016-0222.
Adler, J.M. (2012), “Living into the Story: Agency and Coherence in a Longitudinal Study of Narrative Identity Development and Mental Health over the Course of Psychotherapy”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102: 367–389.
Baerger, D.R., and McAdams, D.P. (1999), “Life Story Coherence and Its Relation to Psychological Well-Being”, Narrative Inquiry, 9 (1): 69–96.
Basu, R., and Kumar, S. (2020), “Awareness, Attitude and Social Identity in the Contemporary Globalized World: An Exploratory Study of Emerging Adults”, International Journal of Recent Research in Social Sciences and Humanities (IJRRSSH), 7 (1): 1–9.
Bauer, J.J., McAdams, D.P., and Sakaeda, A. (2005), “Interpreting the Good Life: Growth Memories in the Lives of Mature, Happy People”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88: 203–217.
Bruner, J. (1995), “The Narrative Construction of Reality”, Critical Inquiry, 18: 1–21.
Centre for Substance Abuse Treatment (2008), Managing Depressive Symptoms in Substance Abuse Clients during Early Recovery, Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US). Available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64057/ (last accessed: November 21, 2020).
Chamberlayne, P. (ed.) (2000), The Turn to Biographical Methods in Social Science: Comparative Issues and Examples, London: SAGE.
Chan, C. (2019), “Using Digital Storytelling to Facilitate Critical Thinking Disposition in Youth Civic Engagement: A Randomized Control Trial”, Children and Youth Services Review, 107: 1–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.104522.
Chan, C., and Holosko, M.J. (2017), “The Utilization of Social Media for Youth Outreach Engagement: A Case Study”, Qualitative Social Work, 16 (5): 680–697.
Covington, C. (1995), “No Story, No Analysis? The Role of Narrative in Interpretation”, Journal of Analytical Psychology, 40: 405–417.
Cunningham, R., Bunde-Birouste, A., Rawstorne, P., and Nathan, S. (2020), “Young People’s Perceptions of the Influence of a Sport-for-Social-Change Program on Their Life Trajectories”, Social Inclusion, 8 (3): 162–176.
Davis, A., and Weinshenker, D. (2012), “Digital Storytelling and Authoring Identity”, in C. Ching and B. Foley (eds), Constructing the Self in a Digital World, pp. 47–74, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139027656.005.
Den Hartigh, R.J., Niessen, A.S.M., Frencken, W.G., and Meijer, R.R. (2018), “Selection Procedures in Sports: Improving Predictions of Athletes’ Future Performance”, European Journal of Sport Science, 18 (9): 1191–1198.
Ellis, C. (2007), “Telling Secrets, Revealing Lives: Relational Ethics in Research with Intimate Others”, Qualitative Inquiry, 13 (1): 3–29.
Erikson, E.H. (1950), Childhood and Society, New York, NY: Norton.
Erikson, E.H. (1963), Childhood and Society (2nd edn.), New York, NY: Norton.
Erikson, E.H. (1968), Identity: Youth and Crisis, New York, NY: Norton.
Etzel, E.F. (2006), “Understanding and Promoting College Student-Athlete Health: Essential Issues for Student Affairs Professionals”, Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 43 (3): 894–922.
Ferreri, E. (2020), “Violence, Identity and Culture: Perspectives and Topics in the Global Scenarios”, International Review of Sociology, 30 (2): 1–19. DOI: 10.1080/03906701.2020.1807863.
Fivush, R., Haden, C.A., and Reese, E. (2006), “Elaborating on Elaborations: Role of Maternal Reminiscing Style in Cognitive and Socioemotional Development”, Child Development, 77: 1568–1588.
Gallie, D. (2019), “Research on Work Values in a Changing Economic and Social Context”, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 682 (1): 26–42.
Gergen, K.J., and Gergen, M.M. (1987), “The Self in Temporal Perspective”, in R.P. Abeles (ed.), Life-Span Perspectives and Social Psychology, pp. 121–137, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Gergen, M.M. (1996), “The Social Construction of Personal Histories: Gendered Lives in Popular Autobiographies”, in T.R. Sarbin and J.I. Kitsuse (eds), Constructing the Social, 19–44, London: SAGE.
Granter, E., McCann, L., and Boyle, M. (2015), “Extreme Work/Normal Work: Intensification, Storytelling and Hypermediation in the (Re)Construction of ‘the New Normal’”, Organization, 22 (4): 443–456. DOI: 10.1177/1350508415573881.
Guzman, A.L., and Lewis, S.C. (2020), “Artificial Intelligence and Communication: A Human–Machine Communication Research Agenda”, New Media & Society, 22 (1): 70–86.
Habermas, T., and Bluck, S. (2000), “Getting a Life: The Emergence of the Life Story in Adolescence”, Psychological Bulletin, 126: 748–769.
Habermas, T., and de Silveira, C. (2008), “The Development of Global Coherence in Life Narratives across Adolescence: Temporal, Causal, and Thematic Aspects”, Developmental Psychology, 44: 707–721.
Haudenhuyse, R. (2017), “Introduction to the Issue Sport for Social Inclusion: Questioning Policy, Practice and Research”, Social Inclusion, 5 (2): 85–90.
Hughes, B., and Paterson, K. (1997), “The Social Model of Disability and the Disappearing Body: Toward a Sociology of Impairment”, Disability and Society, 12 (3): 325–340.
Hydén, L.C. (2010), “Identity, Self, Narrative”, Beyond Narrative Coherence, 11: 33–47.
Jamissen, G., and Skou, G. (2010), “Poetic Reflection through Digital Storytelling: A Methodology to Foster Professional Health Worker Identity in Students”, Seminar.net, 6 (2): 177–191.
Josselson, R., and Lieblich, A. (eds) (1995), Interpreting Experience. The Narrative Study of Lives, London: SAGE.
Jung, C.G. (1995 [1911-1912/1952]), Collected Works, Vol. 5: Symbols of Transformation (2nd edn.), London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Kerby, A.P. (1991), Narrative and the Self, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
King, L.A., and Hicks, J.A. (2007), “Whatever Happened to ‘What Might Have Been’”, American Psychologist, 62: 625–636.
Leiser, D., Benita, R., and Bourgeois-Gironde, S. (2016), “Differing Conceptions of the Causes of the Economic Crisis: Effects of Culture, Economic Training, and Personal Impact”, Journal of Economic Psychology, 53: 154–163.
Lieblich, A., Tuval-Mashiach, R., and Zilber, T. (1998), Narrative Research: Reading, Analysis and Interpretation, London: SAGE.
Linde, C. (1993), Life Stories: The Creation of Coherence, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Marks, D. (1999), “Dimensions of Oppression: Theorising the Embodied Subject”, Disability & Society, 14 (5): 611–626.
McAdams, D.P. (1985), Power, Intimacy, and the Life Story: Personological Inquiries into Identity, Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
McAdams, D.P. (1993), Personal Myths and the Making of the Self, New York, NY: Morrow.
McAdams, D.P. (1993), The Stories We Live By, New York, NY: HarperCollins.
McAdams, D.P. (1995), “What Do We Know When We Know a Person?”, Journal of Personality, 63, 365–396.
McAdams, D.P. (1996), “Personality, Modernity, and the Storied Self: A Contemporary Framework for Studying Persons”, Psychological Inquiry, 7: 295–321.
McAdams, D.P., and McLean, K.C. (2013), “Narrative Identity”, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22 (3): 233–238.
McLamore, Q., and Uluğ, Ö.M. (2020), “Social Representations of Sociopolitical Groups on r/The_Donald and Emergent Conflict Narratives: A Qualitative Content Analysis”, Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 20 (1): 508–535. DOI: 10.1111/asap.12212.
McLean, K.C., and Pratt, M.W. (2006), “Life’s Little (and Big) Lessons: Identity Status and Meaning-Making in the Turning Point Narratives of Emerging Adults”, Developmental Psychology, 42: 714–722.
McLean, K.C., and Pasupathi, M. (2011), “Old, New, Borrowed, Blue? The Emergence and Retention of Personal Meaning in Autobiographical Storytelling”, Journal of Personality, 79: 135–163.
McLean, K.C., Pasupathi, M., and Pals, J.L. (2007), “Selves Creating Stories Creating Selves: A Process Model of Self-Development”, Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11: 262–278.
Mishler, E.G. (1986), Research Interviewing: Context and Narrative, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Pals, J.L. (2006), “Constructing the ‘Springboard Effect’: Causal Connections, Self-Making, and Growth within the Life Story”, in D.P. McAdams, R. Josselson and A. Lieblich (eds), Identity and Story: Creating Self in Narrative, pp. 175–199, Washington, DC: APA Books.
Pappous, A., Marcellini, A., and de Leseleuc, E. (2011), “From Sydney to Beijing: The Evolution of the Photographic Coverage of Paralympic Games in Five European Countries”, Sport in Society, 14 (3): 345–354.
Pasupathi, M., and Hoyt, T. (2010), “Silence and the Shaping of Memory: How Distracted Listeners Affect Speakers’ Recall of a Computer Game Experience”, Memory, 18: 159–169.
Paterson, K., and Hughes, B. (1999), “Disability Studies and Phenomenology: The Carnal Politics of Everyday Life”, Disability & Society, 14 (5): 597–610.
Peachey, J.W., Schulenkorf, N., and Spaaij, R. (2019), “Sport for Social Change: Bridging the Theory–Practice Divide”, Journal of Sport Management, 33 (5): 361–365.
Perrier, M.J., Smith, B., and Latimer-Cheung, A.E. (2013), “Narrative Environments and the Capacity of Disability Narratives to Motivate Leisure-Time Physical Activity among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury”, Disability and Rehabilitation, 35 (24): 2089–2096.
Perrier, M.J., Strachan, S.M., Smith, B., and Latimer-Cheung, A.E. (2014), “Narratives of Athletic Identity after Acquiring a Permanent Physical Disability”, Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 31 (2): 106–124.
Pitts, B.G., and Zhang, J.J. (eds) (2020), Sport Business in the United States: Contemporary Perspectives, London/New York: Routledge.
Polkinghorne, D.E. (1996), “Explorations of Narrative Identity”, Psychological Inquiry, 7: 363–367.
Rao, A.L., and Hong, E.S. (2016), “Understanding Depression and Suicide in College Athletes: Emerging Concepts and Future Directions”, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50 (3): 136–137. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095658.
Riessman, C.K. (1993), Narrative Analysis, Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.
Rizvandi, A., Taghipour Gharbi, M., Esmaeili, M., and Ashraf Ganjoee, F. (2019), “The Evaluation of Performance Indicators of Coaches in Football Development”, Journal of Humanities Insights, 3 (4): 248–254.
Roesler, C. (2006), “A Narratological Methodology for Identifying Archetypal Story Patterns in Autobiographical Narratives”, Journal of Analytical Psychology, 51 (4): 574–586.
Sarokhani, D., Delpisheh, A., Veisani, Y., Sarokhani, M.T., Manesh, R.E., and Sayehmiri, K. (2013), “Prevalence of Depression among University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study”, Depression Research and Treatment, 1: 1–7. DOI: 10.1155/2013/373857.
Smith, B., and Sparkes, A.C. (2012), “Disability, Sport and Physical Activity: A Critical Review”, in N. Watson, A. Roulstone and C. Thomas (eds), Routledge Handbook of Disability Studies, pp. 336–347, London: Routledge.
Smith, C.P. (2000), “Content Analysis and Narrative Analysis”, in H.T. Reis and C.M. Judd (eds), Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology, pp. 313–335, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Storch, E.A., Storch, J.B., Welsh, E., and Okun, A. (2002), “Religiosity and Depression in Intercollegiate Athletes”, College Student Journal, 36 (4): 526–532.
Syed, M., and Azmitia, M. (2010), “Narrative and Ethnic Identity Exploration: A Longitudinal Account of Emerging Adults’ Ethnically-Related Experiences”, Developmental Psychology, 46: 208–219.
Trinh, C.T., Nguyen, X., Sgro, P., and Pham, C.S. (2020), “Culture, Financial Crisis and the Demand for Property, Accident and Health Insurance in the OECD Countries”, Economic Modelling, 93: 480–498.
Wake, D.G. (2012), “Exploring Rural Contexts with Digital Storytelling”, The Rural Educator, 33 (3): 23–36. DOI: 10.35608/ruraled.v33i3.409.
Wang, B., Liu, Y., and Parker, S.K. (2020), “How Does the Use of Information Communication Technology Affect Individuals? A Work Design Perspective”, Academy of Management Annals, 14 (2): 695–725. DOI: 10.5465/annals.2018.0127.
Waters, T.E., and Fivush, R. (2015), “Relations between Narrative Coherence, Identity, and Psychological Well‐Being in Emerging Adulthood”, Journal of Personality, 83 (4): 441–451.
Yang, J., Peek-Asa, C., Corlette, J.D., Cheng, G., Foster, D.T., and Albright, J. (2007), “Prevalence of and Risk Factors Associated with Symptoms of Depression in Competitive Collegiate Student Athletes”, Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 17 (6): 481–487.